"American Statistical Association" returned 206 hits

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Author: Hipparchus (190-120BC)
Measurement of the year with great accuracy and building of the first comprehensive star chart with 850 stars and a luminosity, or brightness, scale; discovery of the precision of the equinoxes
Mediaitems: Hipparchus biography, Hipparchus the Astronomer, Astronomy
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Eratosthenes (276BC-194BC)
Calculation of the diameter of the earth by measuring noontime shadows at sites 800 km. apart
Mediaitems: Eratosthenes biography, Eratosthenes of Cyrene
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Unknown
Earliest known attempt to show changing values graphically (positions of the sun, moon, and planets throughout the year)
Mediaitems: Planetary movements diagram, Planetary movements icon
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Ramon Llull (1235-1316)
Triangular diagrams of paired comparisons for electoral systems (how to elect a Pope or Mother Superior, when all the candidates are voting)
Mediaitems: Llull portraits, Llull portrait, Llull's writings on electoral systems
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Ramon Llull (1235-1316)
Mechanical diagrams of knowledge, as aids to reasoning (served as an inspiration to Leibnitz in the development of symbolic logic)
Mediaitems: Llull's tree of knowledge, Llull's mechanical disks
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Nicole Oresme (1320-1382)
Proto-bar graph (of a theoretical function), and development of the logical relation between tabulating values, and graphing them (pre-dating Descartes). Oresme proposed the use of a graph for plotting a variable magnitude whose value depends on another, and, implicitly, the idea of a coordinate system
Mediaitems: Oresme portrait, Oresme bar graph, Page from Oresme
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Nicolas of Cusa (1401-1464)
Graphs of distance vs. speed, presumably of the theoretical relation
Mediaitems: Cusa biography, Annotated links: Nicolas of Cusa on the Web, Nicolas de Cusa portrait
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
Use of rectangular coordinates to analyze velocity of falling objects
Mediaitems: The'Arnovalley', the first known and dated work of Leonardo da Vinci, da Vinci portrait, biography of Leonardo da Vinci
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Regnier Gemma-Frisius (1508-1555)
Theoretical description of how longitude may be determined using difference of times by a clock and the associated observed change in star positions (not implemented)
Mediaitems: Frisius biography, Gemma Frisius portrait
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Regnier Gemma-Frisius (1508-1555)
Description of how to determine mapping locations by triangulation, from similar triangles, and with use of angles w.r.t meridians
Mediaitems: Gemma Frisius at his desk surrounded by instruments and books, Image from Peter Apianius Cosmographia, edited by Gemma Frissius, Gemma-Frisius Diagram of triangulation, Cosmographia web site, Frisius biography
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Georg Joachim Rheticus (1514-1574)
Trigonometric tables (published 1596 posthumously)
Mediaitem: Rheticus biography
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Niccolo Fontana Tartaglia (1499-1557)
Development of a method to fix position and survey land using compass-bearing and distance. (Tartaglia is better known for discovering a method to solve cubic equations)
Mediaitems: Tartaglia biography, Tartaglia portrait
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Gerolamo Cardano (1501-1576)
Liber de Ludo Alaea, a practical guide to gambling, containing the first systematic computation of probabilities; written in 1562, but not published until 1663.
Mediaitems: Gerolamo Cardano portrait, Cardano (Galileo project), Cardano biography
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Unknown
Tables of empirical data, published tables of numbers begin to appear. "Die Tabellen-Statistik,'' as a branch of statistics devoted to the numerical description of facts
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: John Napier (1550-1617)
Invention of logarithms, and the first published tables of logarithms.
Mediaitems: Two pages from Napier's table of logarithms, Diagram of spherical triangles from, Napier portrait, Biography of Napier, Linear and logarithmic scales, English translation of John Napier : Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio...by Ian Bruce
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Willebrord van Roijen Snell (1580-1626)
First use of Frisius' method of trigonometric triangulation to produce locations of major cities in Holland; foundation of geodesy
Mediaitems: Snell, biographical sketch, Snellius portrait
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Christopher Scheiner (1575-1650)
Visual representations used to chart the changes in sunspots over time. Also, the first known use of the idea of "small multiples'' to show a series of images in a coherent display
Mediaitems: Sunspot plate from Scheiner's "Tres Epistolae'', Apparatus for recording sunspots, A brief history of sunspots, Scheiner sunspot image
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
Statistical analysis of observations on location of Tycho Brahe's star of 1572, based on idea that the most probable hypothesis is the one having the smallest (least absolute value) deviations
Mediaitems: Galileo portrait, Galileo biography
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665) & René Descartes (1596-1650)
Coordinate system reintroduced in mathematics, analytic geometry; relationship established between graphed line and equation
Mediaitems: Biographical sketch - Pierre de Fermat, Descartes portrait, Biographical sketch - Rene Descartes
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Michael F. van Langren (1598-1675)
First visual representation of statistical data: variations in determination of longitude between Toledo and Rome
Mediaitem: Langren image
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665) & Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)
Initial statements of the theory of probability
Mediaitems: Pascal portrait, Pascal biography, extract from
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695)
First text on probability
Mediaitems: Huygens portrait, Biographical blurb from, English translation of De Ratiociniis in Ludo Aleae
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: John Graunt (1620-1674)
Founding of demographic statistics: Development of the idea that vital statistics (records of christenings and burials in London) could be used to construct life tables. The average life expectancy in London was 27 years, with 65\% dying by age 16
Mediaitems: Cover page of "Natural and Political Observations..." , Mortality table, from, Graunt portrait, Natural and Political Observations mentioned in a following Index, and made upon the Bills of Mortality, 1665, Short biography on John Graunt
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Jean Talon (1626-1694)
First modern complete demographic census, a record of each individual by name of the 3215 inhabitants of New France
Mediaitems: The great intendant: A chronicle of Jean Talon in Canada (e-book), Jean Talon biography from Statistics Canada, Commentary on first Canadian census by Dan
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695)
First graph of a continuous distribution function, a graph of Gaunt's life table, and a demonstration of how to find the median remaining lifetime for a person of given age
Mediaitems: Huygens - Biographical sketch, Complete works of Huygens, Huygens graph
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Jan de Witt (1625-1672)
First attempt to determine scientifically what should be the purchase price of annuities, using mortality tables
Mediaitems: de Witt portrait, Death and Statistics, including an account of de Witt's method, de Witt biography
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Edmond Halley (1656-1742)
Bivariate plot of a theoretical curve derived from observations (barometric pressure vs. altitude), graphical analysis based on empirical data
Mediaitem: Halley's graph of change in barometric pressure
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: William Petty (1623-1687)
Use of statistics for international comparisons, e.g., London vs. Rome and London vs. Paris, compared in people, housing, hospitals, etc.
Mediaitem: Petty portrait
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Edmond Halley (1656-1742)
First real mortality tables, containing the ages at death of a stable sample of individuals under stable conditions (from Breslau Bills of Mortality)
Mediaitem: Matthias Bohne edit of Halley 1693 paper
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Edmond Halley (1656-1742)
First use of areas of rectangles to display probabilities of independent binary events
Mediaitems: Halley 1893 2D diagram, Halley 1893 3D diagram, Halley's diagram
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Edmond Halley (1656-1742)
Contour maps showing curves of equal value (an isogonic map, lines of equal magnetic declination for the world, possibly the first contour map of a data-based variable)
Mediaitems: National maritime museum, Halley magnetic chart, Halley isogonic map, Halley biography, Geomagnetism: early concept of the North Magnetic Pole
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: John Arbuthnot (1667-1735)
First test of statistical significance based on deviation between observed data and a null hypothesis (used to show that the guiding hand of a devine being could be discerned in the nearly constant ratio of male to female births in London over 1629--1710)
Mediaitems: Graph of the sex ratio from 1620--1710, Arbuthnot portrait, Arbuthnot biography
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Francis Hauksbee (1666-1713)
Literal line graph, inspired by observation of nature (section of hyperbola, formed by capillary action of colored water between two glass plates)
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Nicolaus Samuel Cruquius (1678-1754)
Abstract line graph (of barometric observations), not analyzed
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Jacob Bernoulli (1654-1705) & Gregorio Fontana (1735-1803)
Development of the use of polar coordinates for the representation of functions. Newton's Method of Fluxions was written about 1671, but not published until 1736. Jacob Bernoulli published a derivation of the idea in 1691 attributes the development of polar coordinates to Fontana, with no date.
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Johann Peter Süssmilch (1707-1767)
Beginnings of the study of population statistics (demography)
Mediaitems: Sussmilch portrait, Image of a page from Sussmilch's book
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Gottfried Achenwall (1719-1772)
First use of the term "statistik.'' The word "statistics'' was first used by Zimmerman in 1787. (For the earlier use of "statist'', "statista'' and other terms, see cite{John:1883}.)
Mediaitems: Achenwall Wikipedia entry, Achenwall biography
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Johanes Tobias Mayer (1723-1762) & Rogerius Josephus Boscovich (1711-1787)
Beginnings of the estimation of $m$ unknown quantities from $n$ emipirical equations (where $n > m$), taking account of the possibility of errors in the observations (later supplanted by the method of least squares)
Mediaitems: Boscovich portrait, Mayer biography, Boscovich biography
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Leonhard Euler (1707-1783)
Introduction of a notation which gives a name and address to every possible point in 3D space, $(x,y,z)$.
Mediaitems: Euler biography:, De'couverte d'un nouveau principe de mecanique
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Thomas Bayes (1702-1761)
Graph of the beta density
Mediaitems: Bayes portrait, Essay towards solving a problem in the doctrine of chances, Bayes biography by D. R. Bellhouse, Bayes' Graph of the beta density, Bayes biography
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728-1777)
Theory of measurement error as deviations from regular graphed line. (Lambert made the observation that "a diagram does incomparably better service here than a table.''cite[p. 204]{Tilling:1975}
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728-1777)
Repeated systematic application of graphical analysis (line graphs applied to empirical measurements)
Mediaitem: Graph of evaporation of water vs. time
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Gaspard Monge Comte de Péluse (1746-1818)
Development of descriptive geometry, that leads to engineering drawing
Mediaitems: Monge's system of multiple projections, Monge's biography, Monge portrait, Historical development of graphics
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728-1777)
Graphical analysis of periodic variation (in soil temperature), and the first semi-graphic display combining tabular and graphical formats
Mediaitems: Lambert graphical table of temperatures, Lambert graph of solar warming vs. lattitude
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: August Friedrich Wilhelm Crome (1753-1833)
Statistical map of production in Europe, possibly the first economic and thematic map (shows geographic distribution of 56 commodities produced in Europe)
Mediaitems: Crome portrait, Wikipedia bio (German)
Category: Cartography
Author: Charles de Fourcroy (1766-c.1810)
Use of geometric, proportional figures (squares) to compare demographic quantities by superposition, an early "tableau graphique''
Mediaitems: de Fourcroy's proportional squares, de Fourcroy's proportional squares, Description of de Fourcroy, from Palsky
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: August Friedrich Wilhelm Crome (1753-1833)
Superimposed squares to compare areas (of European states)
Mediaitem: Crome's 1820 Verhaeltness Karte
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: William Playfair (1759-1823)
Bar chart, line graphs of economic data
Mediaitems: Playfair line graph: chart of national debt, Playfair bar/line chart: price of wheat and wages, Playfair line graph: chart of national debt, Playfair bar/line chart: price of wheat and wages
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Louis Ézéchiel Pouchet (1748-1809)
Multi-number graphical calculation (proto-nomogram: contours applied to multiplication table, later rectified by Lalanne cite{Lalanne:1846})
Mediaitems: Pouchet's chart of the multiplication table, Pouchet chart icon
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Alexander Keith
Idea for continuous log of automatically recorded time series graphs (of temperature and barometric pressure), also recording the maximum and minimum
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: William Playfair (1759-1823)
Invention of the pie chart, and circle graph, used to show part-whole relations
Mediaitems: Playfair's 1805 Statistical Representation of the U.S.A., Playfair's 1805 Statistical Representation of the U.S.A., Playfair's diagram of population and taxes, Oxford DNB article by Ian Spence (pdf), Spence portrait
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855)
Methods of determining an orbit from at least three observations; presentation of the least squares method
Mediaitem: Gauss biography
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Pierre-Simon, Marquis de Laplace (1749-1827)
The central limit theorem explains why many distributions tend to be close to the normal distribution. The key ingredient is that the random variable being observed should be the sum or mean of many independent identically distributed random variables.
Mediaitem: The Central Limit Theorem
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859)
Charts using subdivided bar graphs, and superimposed squares, showing the relative size of Mexican territories and populations in the colonies
Mediaitems: Cross-section diagram of the Chimborazo, 1805--07, von Humboldt charts, Humboldt portrait, Humboldt portrait, Humboldt biography (French), von Humboldt biography
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859)
First graph of isotherms, showing mean temperature around the world by latitude and longitude. Recognizing that temperature depends more on latitude and altitude, a subscripted graph shows the direct relation of temperature on these two variables
Mediaitems: von Humboldt isotherms, Annals de Chemie et de physique, 1817, von Humboldt isotherm, von Humboldt isotherms from Berghaus' 1849 Atlas, von Humboldt isotherm icon
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Baron Pierre Charles Dupin (1784-1873)
Choropleth map with shadings from black to white (distribution and intensity of illiteracy in France), the first (unclassed) choropleth map, and perhaps the first modern statistical map. (This map dates from 1826 cite[Plate 1, vol. 2]{Dupin:1827} according to Robinson cite[p. 232]{Robinson:1982}, rather than 1819 according to Funkhouser cite{Funkhouser:1937})
Mediaitems: Dupin portrait, with his map, Dupin choropleth map of France
Category: Cartography
Author: Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830)
Ogive or cumulative frequency curve, inhabitants of Paris by age groupings (shows the number of inhabitants of Paris per 10,000 in 1817 who were of a given age or over. The name "ogive'' is due to Galton.)
Mediaitems: Fourier biography, Fourier portrait, Fourier ogive
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Benjamin Gompertz (1779-1865)
Gompertz curve, derived to describe expected mortality statistics for a population of organisms whose probability of death increases as a function of time
Mediaitems: Gompertz portrait, Gompertz biography, The Gompertz model
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Baron Pierre Charles Dupin (1784-1873)
Choropleth map with shadings from black to white (distribution and intensity of illiteracy in France), the first (unclassed) choropleth map, and perhaps the first modern statistical map
Mediaitems: Dupin portrait, Dupin choropleth map of literacy in France, Dupin cartogram map of France, Dupin biography
Category: Cartography
Author: Adolphe Quetelet (1796-1874)
Mortality curves drawn from empirical data (for Belgium and France)
Mediaitems: Quetelet biography, Quetelet portrait, Quetelet web site
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: André Michel Guerry (1802-1866)
Polar-area charts (predating those by Florence Nightingale cite{Nightingale:1857}), showing frequency of events for cyclic phenomena
Mediaitems: Guerry's polar diagrams, Guerry barcharts and polar diagrams
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Michael Faraday (1791-1867)
Graphical analysis of natural phenomena begins to appear on a regular basis in scientific publications, particularly in England. For example, in 1832, Faraday proposes pictorial representation of electric and magnetic lines of force.
Mediaitems: Faraday biography with portraits, Faraday portrait, Faraday's iron filing diagrammes, the earliest ever made, Faraday biography
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: John Frederick W. Herschel (1792-1871)
Fitting a smoothed curve to a scatterplot, advocacy of graph paper and graphical methods as standard tools of science. ["The process by which I propose to accomplish this is one essentially graphical; by which term I understand not a mere substitution of geometrical construction and measurement for numerical calculation, but one which has for its object to perform that which no system of calculation can possibly do, by bringing in the aid of the eye and hand to guide the judgment, in a case where judgment only, and not calculation, can be of any avail.'' (p. 178)]
Mediaitems: Herschel's graph of position vs time for $gamma$; Virginis, Derived double-orbit for $gamma$ Virginis, Herschel portrait, John Fredrick Herschel biography (French), Herschel biography, Herschel images
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: André Michel Guerry (1802-1866)
The first comprehensive analysis of data on "moral statistics'' (crimes, suicide, literacy, etc.) shown on thematic unclassed choropleth maps; bar charts (of crime, by age groupings and months)
Mediaitems: Guerry's map of crimes against persons in France, Guerry's map of crimes against property in France, Guerry's map of "instruction'' in France, Guerry's map of suicides, Reference to English translation
Category: Cartography
Authors: André Michel Guerry (1802-1866)
Graphical rank lists, with lines showing shifts in rank order between categories (rank of types of crime from one age group to the next)
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Adolphe d' Angeville (1796-1856)
First broad and general application of principles of graphic representation to national industrial and population data
Mediaitems: Angeville biography, Population of France, Carte 1, Taille, Carte 5
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Alexandre Jean Baptiste Parent-Duchatelet (1790-1836)
Extensive data tabulation, time series, and mapping of prostitutes in Paris
Mediaitems: English translation of On prostitution in the city of Paris, Duchatelet's map showing the distribution of prostitutes in Paris, Duchatelet's map showing the origins of prostitutes in Paris
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Pierre-François Verhulst (1804-1849)
Development of the logistic curve, $ y = k / (1 + C e^)$, to describe the growth of human populations
Mediaitems: Verhulst bio, Pierre-Francois Verhulst et la loi logistique de la population, Verhulst portrait
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Léon Lalanne (1811-1892)
Contour map of a 3D table, temperature x hour x month (published in 1845)
Mediaitems: Lalanne contour diagram, Lalanne contour diagram, Lalanne biography
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Léon Lalanne (1811-1892)
Use of polar coordinates in a graph(frequency of wind directions)
Mediaitem: Lalanne windrose diagram
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Charles Joseph Minard (1781-1870)
"Tableau-graphique'' showing transportation of commercial traffic by variable-width (distance), divided bars (height $sim$ amount), area $sim$ cost of transport [An early form of the mosaic plot.]
Mediaitems: Minard biography, Minard Tableau graphique
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Léon Lalanne (1811-1892)
Logarithmic grid (the first log-log plot, as a nomogram for showing products from the factors)
Mediaitems: Lalanne's Universal Calculator, Lalanne nomogram icon, Lalanne nomogram image
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Adolphe Quetelet (1796-1874)
Results of sampling from urns shown as symmetrical histograms, with limiting "curve of possibility'' (later called the normal curve)
Mediaitems: Quetelet's graph of a binomial distribution, 999 trials
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Charles Joseph Minard (1781-1870)
Map incorporating statistical diagrams: circles proportional to coal production (published in 1861)
Mediaitem: Pie-map showing origin of meats consumed in Paris
Category: Cartography
Author: Unknown
Statistical graphics used in a lawsuit. (Reported by Ernst Engel at the 7th meetings of the International Statistical Congress, 1869, The Hague
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: International Statistical Institute (1885-)
First international statistics conference (organized by Quetelet)
Mediaitems: ISI historical biography, ISI History, Quetelet biography
Category: Other
Authors: André Michel Guerry (1802-1866)
Guerry's ordonnateur statistique is arguably the first mechanical device invented
to aid statistical calculation and the assessment of the relationship between
social and moral variables.
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Lt. Serjev (1800s)
An augmented graphic representation of a train schedule for 35 railways stations, between St. Petersburg and Moscow. This was designed by Lt. Sergev in 1854.
Mediaitems: Graphic train schedule with map, Graphic train schedule
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Charles Joseph Minard (1781-1870)
Minard, a visual engineer, was asked to investigate the cause of the collapse of the bridge at Bourg St. Andeol on the Rhone in 1840.
Mediaitem: Collapse of the bridge on the Rhone
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Unknown
Discussion of standardization and classification of graphical methods at the Third International Statistical Congress
Mediaitems: The debate on the standardization of statistical maps and diagrams (1857-1901), Cybergeo, No. 85
Category: Other
Author: Unknown
Exhibition display of graphs and cartograms. Third International Statistical Congress
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Florence Nightingale (1820-1910)
Polar area charts, known as "coxcombs'' (used in a campaign to improve sanitary conditions of army)
Mediaitems: re-creation of a coxcomb, Nightingale coxcomb, Nightingale portrait, JSE article: A Dialogue with Florence Nightingale, Florence Nightingale's Statistical Diagrams, Florence Nightingale by I. Bernard Cohen, Coxcomb of Cholera deaths by William Farr, Coxcomb of London Plague by William Farr, Graphs by Andre-Michel Guerry in 1829, William Farr portrait
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: William Stanley Jevons (1835-1882)
Semilogarithmic grid (showing percentage changes in commodities)
Mediaitems: Graphical method, from, Quantitative induction, from, Jevons portrait, Comprehensive bibliography, Jevons Home page, by Bert Mosselmans, Jevons in Sidney and the logic piano, The first semilog chart
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Émile Levasseur (1828-1911)
Statistical diagrams used in a school textbook
Mediaitems: Levasseur portrait, Link to bio blurb and texts
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Gustav Zeuner (1828-1907)
Three-dimensional population surface or "stereogram,'' with axonometric projection to show curves of various "slices'' (sometimes known as a "Zeuner diagram)''
Mediaitems: Zeuner portrait, Wiklipedia: Zeuner biography
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Hermann Schwabe (1830-1875)
Classification of statistical graphical treatments by form, with consideration of appropriate uses of color, graphical elements, limitations of perception. At the 8th ISI meetings, St. Petersburg.
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Unknown
Congressional appropriation for graphical treatment of statistics
Category: Other
Author: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1903-)
Use of statistical graphics by USA Government in census reports (cartograms of data from Ninth Census)
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839-1903)
Graphical methods applied to explain fundamental relations in thermodynamics; this includes diagrams of entropy vs. temperature (where work or heat is proportional to area), and the first use of trilinear coordinates (graphs of (x,y,z) where x+y+z=constant)
Mediaitems: Gibbs, Elementary principles in statistical mechanics, Gibbs portrait, Plot on trilinear graph paper by R. A. Fisher, ca. 1955, Gibb's models, Gibbs biography
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Toussaint Loua (1824-1907)
First-known use of a semi-graphic table to display a data table by shading levels
Mediaitems: Google Books: Atlas Statistique de Paris, Loua scalogram of 40 characteristics of 20 Paris districts (2422 x 1932; 1386K), Loua scalogram, color version (1212 x 960; 318K), Shaded map of Paris showing number of inhabitants per house (935 x 615; 77K)
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Francis Amasa Walker (1840-1897)
Age pyramid (bilateral histogram), bilateral frequency polygon, and the use of subdivided squares to show the division of population by two variables jointly (an early mosaic display) in the first true U.S. national statistical atlas
Mediaitems: Cover of the 1870 Statistical Atlas, Population pyramid, Portrait, Walker portrait, detailed Walker biography, Text of the Statistical Atlas of 1870, History of US census atlases, Detailed Walker biography, Statistical Atlas of the United States (1870), Population distribution of U.S. by age and sex, Example of population pyramid
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Louis-Léger Vauthier (1815-1881)
Population contour map (population density shown by contours), the first statistical use of a contour map
Mediaitems: Vauthier portrait, Estuaire de la Seine en 1834, Vauthier contour map, Wikipedia: Louis-Léger Vauthier, Vauthier contour map
Category: Cartography
Author: Georg von Mayr (1841-1925)
Two-variable color map (showing the joint distribution of horses (red, vertical bars) and cattle (green, horizontal bars) in Bavaria, widths of bars $sim$ animals/km$^2$)
Mediaitem: von Mayr Portrait
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Francis Galton (1822-1911)
Galton's first semi-graphic scatterplot and correlation diagram, of head size and height, from his notebook on Special Peculiarities
Mediaitems: Galton correlation diagram, from, Comprehensive Galton site: biography, papers, images
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Wilhelm Lexis (1837-1914)
Lexis diagram, showing relations among age, calendar time, and life spans of individuals simultaneously (but the paternity of this diagram is in dispute cite{Vandeschrick:2001})
Mediaitems: Lexis portrait, Visualisation using Lexis pencils, Illustrated description of the Lexis diagram, The Lexis diagram, a misnomer, Lexis diagram
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Francis Galton (1822-1911)
Galton's first illustration of the idea of correlation, using sizes of the seeds of mother and daughter plants
Mediaitem: Galton's first correlation diagram
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Georg von Mayr (1841-1925)
First use of proportional, divided square in the modern (mosaic) form for data representation
Mediaitems: von Mayr's Area diagram, von Mayr portrait, Mosaic graph by Von Mayr
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Georg von Mayr (1841-1925)
First use of polar diagrams and star plots for data representation
Mediaitem: von Mayr's polar diagram
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Henry Pickering Bowditch (1840-1911)
Extensive statistical study of 24,500 children to improve school practice; early ideas of correlation and regression by quoting the "measure of stoutness'', the ratio of annual increase in pounds weight to annual increase in inches height. Includes six charts, showing curvilinear regresions.
Mediaitems: Early regression of height on weight for English schoolboys, Early regression curves of height on weight for Boston schoolboys, Bowditch portrait
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Francis Galton (1822-1911)
Galton's 1877 (hypothetical) machine for visualizing Bayesian inference using a prior distribution.
Mediaitem: Galton's 1877 machine
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Etienne-Jules Marey (1830-1904)
First attempt to survey, describe, and illustrate available graphic methods for experimental data
Mediaitems: Marey portrait, Chronophotographical Projections, Cinema firsts: Marey, Pioneers in Aeromodeling: E. J. Marey, Etienne Jules Marey - Movement in Light (english), Google Books: La M'ethode Graphique
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: James Joseph Sylvester (1814-1897)
The term "graph'' introduced, referring to diagrams showing analogies between the chemical bonds in molecules and graphical representations of mathematical invariants (also coined the term "matrix'')
Mediaitems: Sylvester's diagram image, Sylvester portrait, Wikipedia: Sylvester, Sylvester's diagram icon, Sylvester biography
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Luigi Perozzo (1856-1916)
Stereogram (three-dimensional population pyramid) modeled on actual data (Swedish census, 1750--1875)
Mediaitems: Perozzo stereogram image, Perozzo ilustration of systems for 3D representation, Perozzo stereogram icon
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Ministere de Travaux Publics (1830-1870) & Émile Cheysson (1836-1910)
Album de Statistique Graphique, an annual series over 20 years, using all known graphic forms (map-based pies and stars, mosaic, line graphs, bar charts, and, of course, numerous flow maps) to depict data relevant to planning (railways, canals, ports, tramways, etc.) [This series, under the direction of Émile Cheysson, is regarded as the epitome of the "Golden Age of Statistical Graphics'']
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: John Venn (1834-1923)
Representation of logical propositions and relations diagrammatically. [Actually, Liebnitz and, to some degree, Euler had used such diagrams previously.]
Mediaitems: Venn diagram, Venn biography, Venn portrait, A survey of Venn diagrams, Wikipedia page on Venn and similar diagrams, Create your own Venn diagram
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Alphonse Bertillon (1853-1914)
Statistical reasoning employed to create a new system of bodily measurement, specifically for identifying criminals
Mediaitems: Bertillon images (russian), Bertillon portrait, Bertillon portrait, Science of criminal identification, Bertillon web site, Measuring the head with calipers
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Unknown
Patent issued on logarithmic paper (reported to the British Association for the Advancement of Science, in 1898). Also called "semi-log,'' "arith-log'' paper and "ratio charts''
Mediaitem: Graphing on log paper
Category: Technology
Author: Charles Lallemand (1857-1938)
Combination of many variables into multi-function nomograms, using 3D, juxtaposition of maps, parallel coordinate and hexagonal grids (L'Abaque Triomphe)
Mediaitems: Lallemand's "L'Abaque Triomphe'', Detailed biography (French), l'Ecole des mines: Lalanne "compteur universel'' and other calculating diagrams, Lallemand biography and portrait
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Michael George Mulhall (1836-1900)
Pictogram, used to represent data by icons proportional to a number
Mediaitems: Mulhall pictogram image, Mulhall pictogram image, steam power (730 x 457; 52K), Man, animal and machine pictogram, Google Books: Mulhall's Dictionary of Statistics, Mulhall pictogram image, railways (726 x 456; 58K)
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Maurice d' Ocagne (1862-1938)
The first alignment diagrams, using sets of parallel axes, rather than axes at right angles; development of the essential ideas used in parallel coordinates plots. [Using the principle of duality from projective geometry, d'Ocagne (1885) showed that a point on a graph with Cartesian coordinates transformed into a line on an alignment chart, that a line transformed into a point, and, finally, that a family of lines or a surface transformed into a single line cite(Hankins:1999)]
Mediaitems: Traction of a locomotive in three coordinate systems, Traction of a locomotive in three coordinate systems, Diagram of parallel coordinates from, Text of d'Ocagne'sbook on parallel coordinates, D'Ocagne biography (French), Death by Race and Rationality
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Francis Galton (1822-1911)
Normal correlation surface and regression, the idea that in a bivariate normal distribution, contours of equal frequency formed concentric ellipses, with the regression line connecting points of vertical tangents
Mediaitems: Galton diagram of bivariate normal distribution, Galton portrait, Galton biography, A comprehensive Galton web site, with many publications and images, Karl Pearson's biography of Galton, online
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Émile Levasseur (1828-1911)
Comprehensive review of all available statistical graphics presented to the Statistical Society of London, classified as figures, maps, and solids (3D), perhaps the first mature attempt at a systematic classification of graphical forms
Mediaitems: Link to Levasseur's e-texts, Hi-res scan of Levasseur's La Statistique Graphique (15.6M), Four type of graphs illustrated by Levasseur, Area diagram comparing populations of countries to their colonies, Circle diagram of Infant mortality by month in Brussels, Population density in France in 1866
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Etienne-Jules Marey (1830-1904)
Graphic representation of a train schedule showing rate of travel along the route from Paris to Lyon. The method is attributed to the French engineer Ibry, but new evidence suggests that Lt. Sergeev had developed this method approximately 30 years earlier in Russia.
Mediaitems: Train schedule graphic, Marey portrait
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Émile Cheysson (1836-1910)
First anamorphic maps, using a deformation of spatial size to show a quantitative variable (e.g., the decrease in time to travel from Paris to various places in France over 200 years)
Mediaitems: Cheysson portrait, Several concentric versions of France representing relative travel time, Cheysson's Biography, Anamorphic Maps
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Patrick Geddes (1854-1932)
Social data, diagrams, including regional survey, incorporated in museum
Mediaitems: Geddes portrait, Outlook Tower as an anamorphosis of the world, Notation of Life diagram, Patrick Geddes Exhibition, Geddes biography
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: M. Fontaine (1900s) & Jacques Bertillon (1851-1922) & Émile Cheysson (1836-1910)
This work by Cheysson and Fontaine, reported by Bertillon, was the first proposal of standards for graphical presentation. The paper "Proposals to bring uniformity in the preparation of charts" discusses some key recommendations, including cautious use of symbols and hieroglyphs, and sparing use of comparison by areas. It is proposed that x and y scales be constructed so that the average behaviour corresponds to a curve of 45 degrees. Other attempts to formulate standards for graphical procedures at the International Statistical Congress are discussed in detail.
Mediaitems: Cheysson portrait, On Chart Uniformity (pg. 1) - English Translation , Biographt of Emile Cheysson, Biography of Jacques Bertillon, On Chart Uniformity (pg. 2) - English Translation, On Chart Uniformity (pg. 3) - English Translation, On Chart Uniformity (pg. 4) - English Translation, On Chart Uniformity (pg. 5) - English Translation, On Chart Uniformity (pg. 6) - English Translation
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Arthur L. Bowley (1869-1957)
In one of the first statistical textbooks, Arthur Bowley (1901) illustrated an arithmetic and graphical analysis of time-series data using the total value of British and Irish exports from 1855-1899.  He presented a line graph of the time-series data, supplemented by overlaid line graphs of 3-, 5- and 10-year moving averages.  His goal was to show that while the initial series showed wide variability, moving averages made the series progressively smoother.
Mediaitem: Exports from England and Ireland
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Edward Walter Maunder (1851-1928)
Use of the "butterfly diagram'' to study the variation of sunspots over time, leading to the discovery that they were markedly reduced in frequency from 1645--1715 (the "Maunder minimum''). [Earlier work, started in 1843 by H. Schwabe, showed that sunspots exhibit an approximately twenty-two year cycle, with each eleven-year cycle of sunspots followed by a reversal of the direction of the sun's magnetic field]
Mediaitems: Maunder's butterfly diagram, The sunspot cycle, The butterfly diagram, 1904 Butterfly Diagram: Sunspots
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Max Otto Lorenz (1876-1959)
Lorenz curve (cumulative distribution by rank order, to facilitate study of concentrations, income distribution)
Mediaitems: Description of Lorenz Curve, Lorenz Curve
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Unknown
Statistical diagrams begin to appear regularly in USA textbooks (graphs of temperature, population in texts of arithmetic, algebra)
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: John Bailey Peddle (1868-1933)
Textbook in English devoted exclusively to statistical graphics
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Emil Eugen Roesle (1875-1962)
First International Hygiene-Exhibition in Dresden, with 259 graphical-statistical figures of 35 national and international exhibitors and more than 5 million visitors. [Roesle also wrote publications which dealt with the structure of graphical-statistical displays cite{Roesle:1913}.]
Mediaitems: Rosele portrait, Trellis-like time series graphs of tuberculosis, Trellis-like time series graphs of infant mortality, 3D Histogram: The course of death in Saxony
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Ejnar Hertzsprung (1873-1967) & Henry Norris Russell (1877-1957)
The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, a log-log plot of luminosity as a function of temperature for stars, used to explain the changes as a star evolves. It provided an entirely new way to look at stars, and laid the groundwork for modern stellar physics and evolution, developed independently by
Mediaitems: Russell portrait, HR Diagram tutorial, Hertzsprung biography, Russell biography, Hertzprung's first 1911 graphs, early Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, modern Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Employees of New York City
Parade of statistical graphics, May 17, 1913, including large graphs on horse-drawn floats, and a photograph with people arranged in a bell-shaped curve
Mediaitem: Photograph of the Parade of Statistical Graphics
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley (1887-1915)
Discovery of the concept of atomic number, based largely on graphical analysis (a plot of serial numbers of the elements vs. square root of frequencies from X-ray spectra) The linear relations showed that the periodic table was explained by atomic number rather than, as had been supposed, atomic weight, and predicted the existence of several yet-undiscovered elements
Mediaitems: Moseley portrait, Henry Mosely biography, Moseley graph image, Text of Moseley's article, with scanned graphs
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Martin F. P. Costelloe
College course in statistical graphic methods, "The Graphic Method'' (possibly the first)
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: American Society of Mechanical Engineers (1880-)
Published standards for graphical presentation (by representatives from several scientific societies)
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Willard Cope Brinton (1880-1957)
Pictograms to represent a series of numbers by icons (combining concepts of the bar graph and pictogram of varying size)
Mediaitems: Comparative pictogram of copper production, Proportion of College Graduates, Google Books: Brinton's Graphic Methods for Presenting Facts, Ranks of states on educational features, Fig 33 (514 x 738; 112K), Michael Stoll's Flicker page on Brinton (1939) Graphic Presentation
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: American Statistical Association (1839-)
Creation of a standing committee on graphics
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Ronald Aylmer Fisher (1890-1962)
Beginnings of the development of modern statistical theory (sampling distributions (1915), randomization, likelihood (1921), small sample theory, exact distributions, analysis of variance (1925), etc.)
Mediaitems: Fisher biography, with other links and portraits, R. A. Fisher portrait, Collected papers of R. A. Fisher
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Frank Julian Warne (1874-1948)
Correspondence course in graphical methods (20 lessons for , supplemented by a book of 100 specimen illustrations of bar, curve, and circle diagrams; entended title includes "There's an idea in every chart'')
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Henry Laurence Gantt (1861-1919)
Gantt chart, designed to show scheduled and actual progress of projects
Mediaitems: Gantt chart history, Gantt Project
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: E. P. Cubberly (1900s)
Annual college course in statistical graphical methods
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Leonard Porter Ayres (1879-1946)
Social statistical chartbook, containing a variety of graphic and semi-graphic displays in a USA Government report. [The image below is a fine early example of a semi-graphic display, showing four variables simultaneously.]
Mediaitems: American Divisions in France, WWI, from
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Sewall Wright (1889-1988)
Invention of the path diagram to show relations among a network of endogenous and exogenous variables forming a system of structural equations
Mediaitems: Wright's first path diagram, Wright portrait, Sewall Wright Papers, from the American Philosophical Society, Biographical memoirs
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Karl G. Karsten & A. C. Haskell & A. R. Palmer
Numerous textbooks on graphics, describing principles of graphical presentation of numerical information (published at a rate of about two each year), e.g.,
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Otto Neurath (1882-1945)
Museum of Social Statistical Graphics and the ISOTYPE system (International System of Typographic Picture Education)
Mediaitems: Isotype figure, Births and deaths in Germany, from, Infant mortality and social position in Vienna, from, Number of men living in Europe, from, Neurath Isotype image, Neurath portrait , Neurath biography, Wikipedia: Neurath biography, Article on the ISOTYPE
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Mordecai J. B. Ezekial (1899-1974)
The essential idea behind what are now called partial residual plots are discussed in Ezekial's paper: "A method of handling curvilinear correlation for any number of variables". Later in history, this is rediscovered by Larsen and McCleary (1972).
Mediaitem: Brief biography on Ezekiel
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Walter A. Shewhart (1891-1967)
Development of the control chart for statistical control of industrial processes
Mediaitems: Collection of web sites on Shewhart, Walter Shewhart portrait
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Walter C. Eells
Experimental test of statistical graphical forms (pie vs. subdivided bar charts)
Mediaitem: Experimental stimuli
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: F. E. Croxton & J. N. Washburne & R. von Huhn
Spate of articles on experimental tests of statistical graphical forms
Mediaitems: Graphical image used by Washburne: Income, Graphical image used by Washburne: Population of Florence
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: F. E. Croxton & J. N. Washburne & R. von Huhn
Spate of articles on experimental tests of statistical graphical forms
Mediaitems: Graphical image used by Washburne: Income, Graphical image used by Washburne: Population of Florence
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Lawrence Joseph Henderson (1878-1942)
Nomogram of chemical concentrations in blood, showing the relations among over 20 components
Mediaitems: Henderson nomogram image, Henderson nomogram icon, Henderson biography (pdf)
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Edgar Anderson (1897-1969)
Ideograph, a multivariate rectangular glyph, invented to display four variables and their relations (length and width of petals and sepals in iris flowers)
Mediaitems: Portrait, Brief biography
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Heinz Von Foerster (1911-2002)
Table of historical events drawn on logarithmic paper
Mediaitems: Table of historical events drawn on logarithmic paper, Tabular representation of logarithic timeline, von Foerster interview and logarithmic timeline, von Foerster biography
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Unknown
Standard statistical symbols (Neurath's Isotype method) established by government decree (for schools, public posters, etc.)
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Unknown
Lapse of interest in statistical graphics, as concern with formal, "precise'', and numerical methods gained ascendancy (the modern "dark ages'' of statistical graphics)cite{FriendlyDenis:2001:valois}.
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Howard Gray Funkhouser (1898-1984)
First modern review of the early history of statistical graphics
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Vannevar Bush (1890-1974)
Description of a memex, an associative information retrieval system which would help someone find information based in association and context rather than strict categorical indexing; conceptual creation of "hyperlink'' and the ''World Wide Web''
Mediaitems: Bush biography (with links and images), As We May Think (e-text):
Category: Technology
Author: Edgar Anderson (1897-1969)
Circular glyphs, with rays to represent multivariate data
Mediaitems: Use of metroglyphs in a graph, Diagramming variables in more than 3 dimensions
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Alban William Housego Phillips (1914-1975)
The "Phillips Curve,'' a scatterplot of inflation vs. unemployment over time shows a strong inverse relation, leading to important developments in macroeconomic theory
Mediaitems: The Phillips Curve, The Phillips Curve, Phillips biography
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Joseph B. Kruskal (1929-2010)
Beginnings of modern dynamic statistical graphics (a 1 minute movie of the iterative process of finding a multidimensional scaling solution)
Mediaitems: Kruskal portrait, ASA Video Library blurb for video "Multidimensional Scaling'', with sample frames
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: John W. Tukey (1915-2000)
Beginnings of EDA: improvements on histogram in analysis of counts, tail values (hanging rootogram)
Mediaitems: Hanging rootogram for the fit of a Poisson distribution, Biography, tributes, images, bibliography of JWT, Tukey portrait
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: B. W. White & R. Pickett
Triangular glyphs to represent simultaneously four variables, using sides and orientation
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Jacques Bertin (1918-2010)
Comprehensive theory of graphical symbols and modes of graphics representation
Mediaitems: The reorderable matrix, Bertin portrait, 30 ans de semiologique graphique, Bertin color portrait, InfoVis interview with J. Bertin, Jacques Bertin, Semiologie Graphique web site, Bertin's seven visual variables
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Roberto Bachi (1909-1995)
Systematic "graphical rational patterns'' for statistical presentation
Mediaitems: Bachi portrait, Bachi number patterns
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: John W. Tukey (1915-2000)
Graphical innovations for exploratory data analysis (stem-and-leaf, graphical lists, box-and-whisker plots, two-way and extended-fit plots, hanging and suspended rootograms)
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: E. B. Fowlkes
The first well-known direct manipulation interactive system in statistics: allowed users to interactively control a power transformation in realtime for probability plotting
Category: Technology
Authors: R. M. Goldwyn (1936-1994) & J. H. Siegel & Herman P. Friedman (c. 1930-2010)
Irregular polygon ("star plot'') to represent multivariate data (with vertices at equally spaced intervals, distance from center proportional to the value of a variable) [but see Georg von Mayr in 1877 cite[S. 78]{vonMayr:1877} for first use]
Mediaitems: Star plot, description and example, Star plot of crime rates in US cities
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Albert D. Biderman (1923-2003)
Proposal to use statistical graphics in social indicator reporting, particularly on television
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Kuno Ruben Gabriel (1929-2003)
Development of the biplot, a method for visualizing both the observations and variables in a multivariate data set in a single display. Observations are typically represented by points, variables by vectors, such that the position of a point along a vector represents the data value
Mediaitems: Biplot representation of blood chemistry data, Biplot representation of ratings of automobiles, Description of PCA and biplot
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: David F. Andrews
Form of Fourier series to generate plots of multivariate data
Mediaitem: Fourier function plot image
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Herman Chernoff (1923-)
Cartoons of human face to represent multivariate data
Mediaitems: Chernoff portrait, Chernoff CV and portrait, Faces plot of automobile data, by origin, Chernoff faces Java applet
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Office of Management and Budget (1970-)
USA Government chartbook devoted exclusively to reporting social indicator statistics
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Vincent P. Barabba (1934-)
Revival of statistical graphics innovation, use by U.S. Bureau of the Census
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1903-)
Color-coded bivariate matrix to represent two intervally measured variables in a single map (Urban Atlas series)[but see Georg von Mayr in 1874 cite[Fig. XIX]{vonMayr:1874} for first use]
Mediaitem: CDC map of incidence of stomach cancer
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Howard Wainer (1943-)
Comparative experimental test of histogram, hanging histogram and hanging rootogram
Mediaitem: Wainer portrait
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: John W. Tukey (1915-2000) & M. A. Fishkeller (1915-2000) & Jerome H. Friedman
Start of true interactive graphics in statistics; PRIM-9, the first system in statistics with 3-D data rotations provided dynamic tools for projecting, rotating, isolating and masking multidimensional data in up to nine dimensions
Mediaitem: Friedman portrait
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Office of Management and Budget (1970-)
Weekly chartbook (eventually computer-generated) to brief U.S. President, Vice President on economic and social matters
Mediaitem: Measuring 50 years of economic change
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Stephen E. Fienberg (1942-)
"Four-Fold Circular Display'' to represent 2 x 2 table
Mediaitems: Fourfold display, Stephen Fienberg portrait, Fienberg CV and portrait, Friendly (1994) paper (.ps.gz format)
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: William S. Cleveland & Beat Kleiner
Enhancement of scatterplot with plots of three moving statistics (midmean and lower and upper semimidmean)
Mediaitems: Cleveland portrait, Cleveland bio and papers, USA 1970 Draft Lottery Data, with median and quartile traces
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Herman Chernoff (1923-) & M. H. Rizvi
Experiment showing random permutations of features used in Chernoff's faces affect error rate of classification by about 25 percent
Mediaitem: Chernoff faces
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Andrew S. C. Ehrenberg (1926-2010)
Experimental tests of statistical graphics vs tables, findings favoring latter
Mediaitems: Summarising and presenting data- Rules for tables, Ehrenberg portrait
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: John Hartigan (1937-)
Scatterplot matrix, the idea of plotting all pairwise scatterplots for n variables in a tabular display
Mediaitems: Simple scatterplot matrix, Enhanced scatterplot matrix
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Office of Management and Budget (1970-) & U.S. Bureau of the Census (1903-)
Monthly chartbook (eventually computer-generated) to brief U.S. President, Vice President on economic and social matters (StatUS)  
Mediaitems: US Bureau of Census home page, Measuring 50 years of economic change
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Howard Wainer (1943-) & Mark Reiser
"Cartesian rectangle'' to represent 2 x 2 table, experimentally tested against other forms
Mediaitem: Wainer portrait
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: American Statistical Association (1839-)
Ad Hoc Committee on Statistical Graphics, leading to the ASA Section on Statistical Graphics, later to the Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Carol Newton (1925-)
Original invention of linked brushing (highlighting of observations selected in one display in another display of the same data), although in a manner different from how we see it in today's systems
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: John M. Chambers & Richard A. Becker (1887-1955)
S, a language and environment for statistical computation and graphics. S (later sold as a commercial package, S-Plus; more recently, a public-domain implementation, R is widely available), would become a lingua franca for statistical computation and graphics
Mediaitems: Boxplot of the NJ Pick-it Lottery, Richard Becker portrait, The R Project for Statistical Computing, A Brief History of S (Postscript), John Chambers portrait
Category: Technology
Author: Mark Monmonier (1943-)
Geographic correlation diagram, showing the bivariate relation between two spatially referenced variables using vectors to represent geographic covariation
Mediaitem: Monmonier bio
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Robert Spence (1933-) & Mark D. Apperley
An initial, modern suggestion of a method for viewing a large database by the use of selective focus around a central region, using distortion to provide a context.
Mediaitem: Bifocal display
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Beat Kleiner & John Hartigan (1937-)
Mosaic display to represent frequencies in a multiway contingency table
Mediaitems: Mosaic display á la Hartigan and Kleiner, Hartigan & Kleiner 5-way mosaic of TV ratings (629 x 663; 105K)
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Paul A. Tukey & John W. Tukey (1915-2000)
The "draftsman display'' for three-variables (leading soon to the "scatterplot matrix'') and initial ideas for conditional plots and sectioning (leading later to "coplots'' and "trellis displays'')
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: John A. McDonald
Another early version of brushing, invented independently of Newton, together with a system for 3-D rotations of data
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Hans Riedwyl (1935-2001) & Michel Schüpbach
Sieve diagram, for representing frequencies in a two-way contingency table
Mediaitems: Sieve diagrams applet, Riedwyl portrait, Riedwyl bio and portrait, Sieve diagram image
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Edward Tufte (1942-)
Esthetics and information integrity for graphics defined and illustrated (some concepts: "data-ink ratio'', "lie factor'')
Mediaitems: Tufte portrait, Graphics and web design according to Tufte's principles
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Daniel Asimov
Grand tour, for viewing high-dimensional data sets via a structured progression of 2D projections
Mediaitems: Technical report, The grand tour via geodesic interpolation of 2-frames (pdf)
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Alfred Inselberg (1936-)
Parallel coordinates plots for high-dimensional data
Mediaitems: Representation of a six dimensional point in parallel coordinates, AlInselberg portrait, Parallel coordinates applet, Parallel coordinates visualisation applet, Java applet, allowing direct manipulation: The Parallel Coordinate Explorer, Parallel coordinates-- How it happened, Parallel coordinates plots for high-dimensional data
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Richard A. Becker (1887-1955) & William S. Cleveland
Interactive statistical graphics, systematized: allowing brushing, linking, other forms of interaction
Mediaitems: Figure 14 from "Brushing scatterplots'' showing interactive labeling of brushed points, Becker bio and portrait, ASA Video Library blurb for video "Dynamic Displays of Data''
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Graham Wills & Antony Unwin
Interactive graphics for multiple time series with direct manipulation (zoom, rescale, overlaying, etc.)
Mediaitems: DiamondFast image, overlaid time series, aligned and rescaled interactively, Unwin home page, Unwin portrait
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Graham Wills & J. Haslett & Antony Unwin & P. Craig & Mark Monmonier (1943-)
Statistical graphics interactively linked to map displays
Mediaitems: REGARD image: largest annual oil flows into EU, 1977--1990, Unwin portrait
Category: Cartography
Author: Ted Mihalisin (1940-)
Use of "nested dimensions'' (related to trellis and mosaic displays) for the visualization of multidimensional data. Continuous variables are binned, and variables are allocated to the horizontal and vertical dimensions in a nested fashion
Mediaitems: TempleMVV image: 4 response variables vs. age, sex, education, TempleMVV image: 4-way association
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Luke Tierney (1954-)
Lisp-Stat, an object-oriented environment for statistical computing and dynamic graphics
Mediaitems: Luke Tierney portrait, Tierney home page, Lisp-Stat information
Category: Technology
Authors: Andreas Buja (1951-) & Catherine Hurley
Grand tours combined with multivariate analysis
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: John W. Tukey (1915-2000) & Paul A. Tukey
Textured dot strips to display empirical distributions
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Niels Keiding (1944-)
Lexis pencil: display of multivariate data in the context of life-history
Mediaitems: Animated 3D lexis pencil, from Brian Francis, Bertin, lexis, and the graphical representation of event histories, Lexis pencil image
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Edward Wegman (1943-)
Statistical theory and methods for parallel coordinates plots
Mediaitems: Wegman portrait, Wegman 1990 - Fig3., Wegman 1990 - Fig8
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Michael Friendly (1945-)
Mosaic display developed as a visual analysis tool for log-linear models (beginning general methods for visualizing categorical data)
Mediaitems: Tutorial description of mosaic displays, Brief history of the mosaic display, Two-way mosaic of hair color and eye color, Three-way mosaic of hair color, eye color, and sex
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Ben Shneiderman (1947-)
Treemaps, for space-constrained visualization of hierarchies, using nested rectangles (size proportional to some numerical measure of the node)
Mediaitems: Treemaps description and images, Treemap homepage, Ben Shneiderman portrait, TreeViz image of files on the HCIL server, Wikipedia: Ben Shneiderman biography
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Deborah Swayne (1940-2006) & Di Cook (1960-) & Andreas Buja (1951-) & Forrest Young (1940-2006)
A spate of development and public distribution of highly interactive systems for data analysis and visualization, e.g., XGobi, ViSta
Mediaitems: XGobi screen shot, Swayne portrait, ViSta - The Visual Statistics System, XGobi - multivariate visualization, Young portrait
Category: Technology
Author: Michael Friendly (1945-)
Beginnings of the general extension of graphical methods to categorical (frequency) data
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Leland Wilkinson (1944-)
Grammar of Graphics: A comprehensive systematization of grammatical rules for data and graphs and graph algebras within an object-oriented, computational framework
Mediaitems: Minard's March on Moscow graphic, 3D Contour map, Fig 8-11, Contour plot of death rate vs. birth rate, Wilkinson Portrait
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Jim Flanagan
Tag clouds (also known as "word clouds") are visually stimulating summaries of large bodies of text.  Their purpose is to take a selection of text and visually display the frequency of the most commonly used words within that document.  These are useful for qualitative analyses by highlighting major themes found in particular works of interest.
Mediaitems: Flanagan's Search Referral Zeitgeist, Wordle of Dewey's Reflex Arc Article., Wordle of Skinner's Theories of Learning article., Wordle of the Milestones Project.
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Edward Tufte (1942-)
Sparklines: "data-intense, design-simple, word-sized graphics,'' designed to show graphic information inline with text and tables
Mediaitems: Sparkline of the US deficit, 1983--2003, Sparkline graphic for 4 stocks, Tufte's explanation of sparklines, Sparkline entry from Wikipedia
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Hans Rosling (1948-)
The moving buble chart.
Mediaitems: Buble chart for HIV, Buble chart for the World, Hans Rosling, Gapminder home page
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Martin. I. Krzywinski (1971)
A circular diagram desgined to facilitate the analysis of relationship among categorical and other variables using chords of a circle with various visual attributes. The main application is to genomic structure, where the chords can encode various properties of genomic sequences.
Mediaitems: Circos-D3, Circos sample panel
Category: Statistics & Graphics