1850-1899: Golden Age of data graphics

By the mid-1800s, all the conditions for the rapid growth of visualization had been established. Official state statistical offices were established thoughout Europe, in recognition of the growing importance of numerical information for social planning, industrialization, commerce, and transportation. Statistical theory, initiated by Gauss and Laplace, and extended to the social realm by Guerry (Guerry:1833) and Quetelet (Quetelet:1831), provided the means to make sense of large bodies of data.

What started as the "Age of Enthusiasm" (Palsky:1996) in graphics and thematic cartography, may also be called the "Golden Age", with unparalleled beauty and many innovations.

1850 to 1852
Muscle action
Added: 2010-01-05

Hemholtz1850 Hemholtz1850

Helmholtz1852-1 Helmholtz1852-1

Helmholtz1852-2 Helmholtz1852-2

Helmholtz1852-3 Helmholtz1852-3

Herman Helmholtz Herman Helmholtz


Helmholtz apparently used a simplified version of a recording device named Kymograph (originally invented by Carl Ludwig), to obtain graphical representation of muscle action after stimulation. "These graphs proved that 'the energy of the muscle does not fully develop at the moment of an instantaneous stimulus, but only gradually increases, most often only after the stimulus has ceased, reaches a maximum, and again disappears" (Holmes and Olesko, 1995)
References:
Helmholtz:1850 Helmholtz:1852 HolmesOlesko:1995
1851
Map with diagrams
Added: 2008-07-17

Pie-map showing origin of meats consumed in Paris Pie-map showing origin of meats consumed in Paris


References:
Minard:1861
1852
Graphics in law
Added: 2008-07-17

References:
Funkhouser:1937
1853
1st international conference
Added: 2007-02-01
1854
Ordonnateur Statistique
Added: 2012-06-05

References:
1854
Train schedule graphic
Added: 2012-08-28

Graphic train schedule with map Graphic train schedule with map

Graphic train schedule Graphic train schedule


References:
Wainer-Harik:2013
1854
Bridge collapse
Added: 0000-00-00

Collapse of the bridge on the Rhone Collapse of the bridge on the Rhone


References:
Tufte:1983
1857
Exhibition
Added: 2008-07-17

References:
Congress:1858
1857
Coxcombs
Added: 2008-07-17

re-creation of a coxcomb re-creation of a coxcomb

Nightingale coxcomb Nightingale coxcomb

Nightingale portrait Nightingale portrait

Coxcomb of Cholera deaths by William Farr Coxcomb of Cholera deaths by William Farr

Coxcomb of London Plague by William Farr Coxcomb of London Plague by William Farr

William Farr portrait William Farr portrait


Florence Nightingale is often credited with the invention of this form of a polar area chart, however it is likely that she got the idea from William Farr. The earliest known use of this graphic form is by Andre-Michel Guerry in 1829. See the link above.
References:
Nightingale:1857 Farr1852:report
1861
Modern weather map
Added: 2007-02-01

Galton's 1881 weather chart Galton's 1881 weather chart

Galton portrait Galton portrait

1861, Dec.7. Morning, Afternoon, Evening. 1861, Dec.7. Morning, Afternoon, Evening.

Charts of the temprature, wind, rain and borometer in the morning. Charts of the temprature, wind, rain and borometer in the morning.

1861
Trichromatic process
Added: 2007-02-01

Maxwell portrait Maxwell portrait

1863
Semilogarithmic grid
Added: 2008-07-17

Graphical method, from Graphical method, from

Quantitative induction, from Quantitative induction, from

Jevons portrait Jevons portrait

The first semilog chart The first semilog chart

1868
Diagrams in textbook
Added: 2008-07-17

Levasseur portrait Levasseur portrait

1869
Stereogram
Added: 2008-07-17

Zeuner portrait Zeuner portrait

1869
Flow map
Added: 2007-02-01

Minard's March on Moscow graphic Minard's March on Moscow graphic

1869
Periodic table
Added: 2007-02-01

Mendeleev arranged all of the 63 elements, then known by their atomic weights, into groups possessing similar properties. Where a gap existed in the table, he predicted a new element would one day be found and deduced its properties. Three of those elements were found during his lifetime
References:
1870
Paris election map
Added: 2007-02-01

Montigny election map Montigny election map


References:
Montigny:1869
1872
US Congress supports Graphics
Added: 2008-07-17

References:
1872
Graphics in census
Added: 2008-07-17

References:
Census:1872
1872
Classification of graphics
Added: 2008-07-17
1873
Trilinear coordinates
Added: 2007-02-01

Plot on trilinear graph paper by R. A. Fisher, ca. 1955 Plot on trilinear graph paper by R. A. Fisher, ca. 1955

Gibbs portrait Gibbs portrait

1873
Semi-graphic table
Added: 2008-07-17

Loua scalogram of 40 characteristics of 20 Paris districts (2422 x 1932; 1386K) Loua scalogram of 40 characteristics of 20 Paris districts (2422 x 1932; 1386K)

Loua scalogram, color version (1212 x 960; 318K) Loua scalogram, color version (1212 x 960; 318K)

Shaded map of Paris showing number of inhabitants per house (935 x 615; 77K) Shaded map of Paris showing number of inhabitants per house (935 x 615; 77K)


Loua used this as a graphic summary of 40 maps of Paris, each showing some feature of the population by arrondisement. This device was later used by Bertin who also considered ways of reordering the rows and columns (the "reorderable matrix'') to make the pattern of high/low values more apparent.
References:
Bertin:1967 Loua:1873
1874
Statistical contour map
Added: 2008-07-17

Estuaire de la Seine en 1834 Estuaire de la Seine en 1834

Vauthier contour map Vauthier contour map

Vauthier contour map Vauthier contour map

Vauthier portrait Vauthier portrait

1874
Two-variable color map
Added: 2007-02-01
1874
Semi-graphic scatterplot
Added: 2008-06-03

Galton correlation diagram, from Galton correlation diagram, from

1875
Correlation
Added: 2007-02-01

Galton's first correlation diagram Galton's first correlation diagram


In 1875, Galton was interested in the inheritance of size in sweet-pea seeds, but appears to have tried with smaller seeds first, apparently that of cress. The isograms are represented by ink lines on the sheet of glass covering the little compartments which contain the ranked seeds of the daughter-plants.
References:
Pearson:1914 Pearson:1914
1877
Proportional square
Added: 2008-07-17

von Mayr's Area diagram von Mayr's Area diagram

von Mayr portrait von Mayr portrait

Mosaic graph by Von Mayr Mosaic graph by Von Mayr


References:
vonMayr:1877
1877
Star plot
Added: 2007-02-01

von Mayr's polar diagram von Mayr's polar diagram

1877
Correlation
Added: 2007-02-01

Early regression of height on weight for English schoolboys Early regression of height on weight for English schoolboys

Early regression curves of height on weight for Boston schoolboys Early regression curves of height on weight for Boston schoolboys


Separate series of graphs showing the regression of height (or weight) on age and weight on height
References:
Bowditch:1877 Walker:1929 Walker:1929
1877
Bayesian Distributions
Added: 2011-04-19

Galton's 1877 machine Galton's 1877 machine


References:
Stigler:2011
1878
"Graph''
Added: 2008-07-17

Sylvester's diagram icon Sylvester's diagram icon

Sylvester portrait Sylvester portrait

1879
Stereogram
Added: 2008-07-17

Perozzo stereogram icon Perozzo stereogram icon

Perozzo stereogram image Perozzo stereogram image

Perozzo ilustration of systems for 3D representation Perozzo ilustration of systems for 3D representation


References:
Perozzo:1880
1879
Graph paper
Added: 2008-07-17

References:
Jevons:1879
1879 to 1899
Album de Statistique Graphique
Added: 2008-07-17

References:
Album:1879 Palsky:1996
1882
Motion
Added: 2008-07-17

Somersault icon Somersault icon

Somersault image sequence Somersault image sequence

1883
Logarithmic paper
Added: 2008-07-17
1883 to 1885
Multi-function nomograms
Added: 2007-02-01

Lallemand's "L'Abaque Triomphe'' Lallemand's "L'Abaque Triomphe''


Lallemand was director of the "Service de nivellement de la France,'' designed to establish the heights of locations, water levels and tides throughout France, taking geodetic measurement to the third dimension. He also served as Inspector General of Mines.
References:
Lallemand:1885
1884
Pictogram
Added: 2008-07-17

Mulhall pictogram image Mulhall pictogram image

Mulhall pictogram image, steam power (730 x 457; 52K) Mulhall pictogram image, steam power (730 x 457; 52K)

Man, animal and machine pictogram Man, animal and machine pictogram

Mulhall pictogram image, railways (726 x 456; 58K) Mulhall pictogram image, railways (726 x 456; 58K)

1884
Punched card tabulation
Added: 2008-07-17

Hollerith punched card machine: reader-sorter Hollerith punched card machine: reader-sorter

Hollerith punched card Hollerith punched card

Hollerith portrait Hollerith portrait

1884
Alignment diagrams
Added: 2007-02-01

Traction of a locomotive in three coordinate systems Traction of a locomotive in three coordinate systems

Diagram of parallel coordinates from Diagram of parallel coordinates from


Diagrams with parallel axes had been used before, notably in the 1870 Statistical Atlas of the United States by Francis Walker. For example, Plate 97 shows mortality of different racial and national groups according to age and disease categories.
References:
Ocagne:1885 Ocagne:1899 Hankins:1999
1884
Two-dimensional world
Added: 2004-10-03

Abbott portrait Abbott portrait

1885
Correlation
Added: 2008-07-17

Galton diagram of bivariate normal distribution Galton diagram of bivariate normal distribution

Galton portrait Galton portrait

1885
Review of graphics
Added: 2002-01-05

Four type of graphs illustrated by Levasseur Four type of graphs illustrated by Levasseur

Area diagram comparing populations of countries to their colonies Area diagram comparing populations of countries to their colonies

Circle diagram of Infant mortality by month in Brussels Circle diagram of Infant mortality by month in Brussels

Population density in France in 1866 Population density in France in 1866

1885
Train schedule graphic
Added: 2007-02-01

Train schedule graphic Train schedule graphic

Marey portrait Marey portrait


References:
Marey:1885 Tufte:1983
1888
1st anamorphic maps
Added: 2007-02-01

Cheysson portrait Cheysson portrait

Several concentric versions of France representing relative travel time Several concentric versions of France representing relative travel time

1889
Social mapping
Added: 2007-02-01

Booth's poverty map, larger Booth's poverty map, larger

Portion of Booth's poverty map Portion of Booth's poverty map

Booth portrait Booth portrait


Charles Booth's work is a classic in several fields of social science, including sociology, urban studies, public administration, policy research, social surveys, demography and geography
References:
Booth:1889 Booth:1889a
1896
Area rectangles
Added: 2008-07-17

Bertillon map Bertillon map

1899
Log-square paper
Added: 2008-07-17

References:
Galton:1899