"(Charles) (de) (Fourcroy)" returned 34 hits

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Author: Abraham Cresques (1325-1387)
Catalan Atlas, an exquisitely beautiful visual cosmography, perpetual calendar, and thematic representation of the known world
Mediaitems: Catalan Atlas, detail: Europe, North Africa, BNF listing of images from the Catalan Atlas, BNF description of Atlas catalan (BNF, ESP 30), Detailed description of Catalan Atlas and Abraham Cresques (Henry-Davis), Carte de l'Europe, de l'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient, BNF, ESP 30, Carte de l'Europe, de l'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient, BNF, ESP 30
Category: Cartography
Author: Nicolas of Cusa (1401-1464)
Graphs of distance vs. speed, presumably of the theoretical relation
Mediaitems: Cusa biography, Annotated links: Nicolas of Cusa on the Web, Nicolas de Cusa portrait
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Gerolamo Cardano (1501-1576)
Liber de Ludo Alaea, a practical guide to gambling, containing the first systematic computation of probabilities; written in 1562, but not published until 1663.
Mediaitems: Gerolamo Cardano portrait, Cardano (Galileo project), Cardano biography
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Abraham Ortelius (1527-1598)
The first modern atlas, Teatrum Orbis Terrarum
Mediaitems: Map of the Netherlands, medium, Ortelius world map, from De Camp 1970, Map of the Netherlands, small, Ortelius portrait, Overview of Ortelius and the Teatrum
Category: Cartography
Authors: Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665) & René Descartes (1596-1650)
Coordinate system reintroduced in mathematics, analytic geometry; relationship established between graphed line and equation
Mediaitems: Biographical sketch - Pierre de Fermat, Descartes portrait, Biographical sketch - Rene Descartes
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665) & Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)
Initial statements of the theory of probability
Mediaitems: Pascal portrait, Pascal biography, extract from
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695)
First text on probability
Mediaitems: Huygens portrait, Biographical blurb from, English translation of De Ratiociniis in Ludo Aleae
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Jan de Witt (1625-1672)
First attempt to determine scientifically what should be the purchase price of annuities, using mortality tables
Mediaitems: de Witt portrait, Death and Statistics, including an account of de Witt's method, de Witt biography
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Abraham de Moivre (1667-1754)
The normal distribution, derived as the limit of the binomial distribution
Mediaitems: de Moivre portrait, Maty's (1755) biography of Abraham De Moivre, Wikipedia: Normal distribution
Category: Other
Author: Leonhard Euler (1707-1783)
Introduction of a notation which gives a name and address to every possible point in 3D space, $(x,y,z)$.
Mediaitems: Euler biography:, De'couverte d'un nouveau principe de mecanique
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Phillippe Buache (1700-1733)
Contour map
Mediaitems: Buache's 1770 Carte physique ou Geographie naturelle de la France, Buache contour map icon
Category: Cartography
Authors: Gaspard Monge Comte de Péluse (1746-1818)
Development of descriptive geometry, that leads to engineering drawing
Mediaitems: Monge's system of multiple projections, Monge's biography, Monge portrait, Historical development of graphics
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Charles de Fourcroy (1766-c.1810)
Use of geometric, proportional figures (squares) to compare demographic quantities by superposition, an early "tableau graphique''
Mediaitems: de Fourcroy's proportional squares, de Fourcroy's proportional squares, Description of de Fourcroy, from Palsky
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Pierre-Simon, Marquis de Laplace (1749-1827)
The central limit theorem explains why many distributions tend to be close to the normal distribution. The key ingredient is that the random variable being observed should be the sum or mean of many independent identically distributed random variables.
Mediaitem: The Central Limit Theorem
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859)
First graph of isotherms, showing mean temperature around the world by latitude and longitude. Recognizing that temperature depends more on latitude and altitude, a subscripted graph shows the direct relation of temperature on these two variables
Mediaitems: von Humboldt isotherms, Annals de Chemie et de physique, 1817, von Humboldt isotherm, von Humboldt isotherms from Berghaus' 1849 Atlas, von Humboldt isotherm icon
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Baron Pierre Charles Dupin (1784-1873)
Choropleth map with shadings from black to white (distribution and intensity of illiteracy in France), the first (unclassed) choropleth map, and perhaps the first modern statistical map. (This map dates from 1826 cite[Plate 1, vol. 2]{Dupin:1827} according to Robinson cite[p. 232]{Robinson:1982}, rather than 1819 according to Funkhouser cite{Funkhouser:1937})
Mediaitems: Dupin portrait, with his map, Dupin choropleth map of France
Category: Cartography
Author: Charles Babbage (1791-1871)
Mechanical device for calculating mathematical tables (the Difference Engine) [The beginnings of computing as we know it today. The Difference Engine was steam-powered, and the size of a locomotive.]
Mediaitems: Babbage portrait, Babbage Difference Engine, Babbage biography
Category: Technology
Author: Baron Pierre Charles Dupin (1784-1873)
Choropleth map with shadings from black to white (distribution and intensity of illiteracy in France), the first (unclassed) choropleth map, and perhaps the first modern statistical map
Mediaitems: Dupin portrait, Dupin choropleth map of literacy in France, Dupin cartogram map of France, Dupin biography
Category: Cartography
Author: Joseph Nicephore Niepce (1765-1833)
First successful photograph produced (an 8-hour exposure). [A type of asphalt (bitumen of Judea) was coated on metal plates. After exposure it was washed in solvents, the light areas were shown by the bitumen, dark areas by bare metal. Exposed to iodine, the plate darkened in the shadowed areas.]
Mediaitems: University of Texas exhibition: The first photo, Niepce portrait, Catalog of Niepce heliographies, Niepce photo, Point de vue du Gras
Category: Technology
Author: Armand Joseph Frere de Montizon (1788-)
First simple dot map of population by department, 1 dot = 10,000 people
Mediaitems: Dot map of population of France, 1830
Category: Cartography
Author: Charles Wheatstone (1802-1875)
Invention of the stereoscope, revealing the dependence of visual depth perception upon binocular vision, and allowing production of stereoscopic images
Mediaitems: Charles Wheatstone portrait, Wheatstone biography, Wheatstone uses paper tape to store data, Stereoscopic photography
Category: Technology
Authors: Pierre-François Verhulst (1804-1849)
Development of the logistic curve, $ y = k / (1 + C e^)$, to describe the growth of human populations
Mediaitems: Verhulst bio, Pierre-Francois Verhulst et la loi logistique de la population, Verhulst portrait
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Ada Lovelace (1815-1852)
Ada Lovelace was known as the first programmer for her work in 1843 with Charles Babbage. She wrote a series of instructions for his proposed machanical computer.
Mediaitems: Lovelace portrait, Brief Biography
Category: Technology
Author: Charles Joseph Minard (1781-1870)
"Tableau-graphique'' showing transportation of commercial traffic by variable-width (distance), divided bars (height $sim$ amount), area $sim$ cost of transport [An early form of the mosaic plot.]
Mediaitems: Minard biography, Minard Tableau graphique
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Charles Joseph Minard (1781-1870)
Map incorporating statistical diagrams: circles proportional to coal production (published in 1861)
Mediaitem: Pie-map showing origin of meats consumed in Paris
Category: Cartography
Author: Charles Joseph Minard (1781-1870)
Minard, a visual engineer, was asked to investigate the cause of the collapse of the bridge at Bourg St. Andeol on the Rhone in 1840.
Mediaitem: Collapse of the bridge on the Rhone
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Charles Joseph Minard (1781-1870)
Minard's flow map graphic of Napoleon's March on Moscow (called "the best graphic ever produced)
Mediaitems: Web page for "Re-visions of Charles Joseph Minard'', Minard's March on Moscow graphic
Category: Cartography
Author: Toussaint Loua (1824-1907)
First-known use of a semi-graphic table to display a data table by shading levels
Mediaitems: Google Books: Atlas Statistique de Paris, Loua scalogram of 40 characteristics of 20 Paris districts (2422 x 1932; 1386K), Loua scalogram, color version (1212 x 960; 318K), Shaded map of Paris showing number of inhabitants per house (935 x 615; 77K)
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Louis-Léger Vauthier (1815-1881)
Population contour map (population density shown by contours), the first statistical use of a contour map
Mediaitems: Vauthier portrait, Estuaire de la Seine en 1834, Vauthier contour map, Wikipedia: Louis-Léger Vauthier, Vauthier contour map
Category: Cartography
Authors: Ministere de Travaux Publics (1830-1870) & Émile Cheysson (1836-1910)
Album de Statistique Graphique, an annual series over 20 years, using all known graphic forms (map-based pies and stars, mosaic, line graphs, bar charts, and, of course, numerous flow maps) to depict data relevant to planning (railways, canals, ports, tramways, etc.) [This series, under the direction of Émile Cheysson, is regarded as the epitome of the "Golden Age of Statistical Graphics'']